SOURCE: Christianity Today
July 10, 1509: French Protestant reformer John Calvin is born in Nyon, France. (see issue 12: John Calvin).
July 10, 1863: Clement C. Moore dies. In 1819 he established the General Theological Seminary, where he taught Greek and Hebrew Literature for 28 years. He also authored "A Visit from St. Nicholas" ('Twas the Night Before Christmas . . . ) in 1823.
July 11, 1533: Pope Clement VII excommunicates England's King Henry VIII for remarrying after his divorce (see issue 48: Thomas Cranmer).
July 11, 1681: Oliver Plunkett, Archbishop of Armagh, is executed, having been found guilty of treason. He was the last Catholic to die for his faith in England and the first Irish martyr to be beatified.
July 11, 1955: Congress puts "In God We Trust" on all U.S. currency.
July 12, 1536: Desiderius Erasmus, Dutch scholar and the first editor of the Greek New Testament, dies in Basel. One of the leading scholars of the Protestant Reformation, he also wrote the influential In Praise of Folly. "Most holy was his living," said one observer, "most holy his dying" (see issue 34: Luther's Early Years).
July 13, 1886: Father Edward Flanagan, the Roman Catholic parish priest who founded Boys Town (orginally named the Home for Homeless Boys) near Omaha, Nebraska, is born in Roscommon, Ireland. July 13, 1917
July 13, 1917: Three children in Fatima, Portugal, report seeing visions of the Virgin Mary.
July 14, 1833: Anglican clergyman John Keble preaches his famous sermon on national apostasy, marking the beginning of the Oxford Movement in England. Keble was joined by John Henry Newman and E.B. Pusey, who led this effort to purify and revitalize the Anglican Church by reviving the ideals and practices of the pre-Reformation English church.
July 15, 1015: Vladimir, the grand prince of Rus who made Orthodox Christianity the national religion, dies at age 59
July 15, 1099: The First Crusade captures Jerusalem, massacring thousands. "The city was filled with corpses and blood," wrote one chronicler (see issue 40: The Crusades).
July 15, 1606: Dutch Painter Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn is born to a wealthy family in Leyden. Personal tragedies seemed to deepen the spiritual dimensions of his art, and he eventually created nearly 90 paintings and etchings depicting Christ's passion.
July 16, 1519: The Disputation of Leipzig, in which Martin Luther argued that church councils had been wrong and that the church did not have ultimate doctrinal authority, ends (see issue 34: Luther's Early Years).
July 16, 1769: Spanish Franciscan friar Father Junipero Serra founds the San Diego de Alcala mission in California, the first permanent Spanish settlement on the west coast of America (see issue 35: Christopher Columbus).